The Deepest Place On Earth-Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench is a crescent-shaped scar in the Earth's crust that is more than 1,500 miles (2,550 kilometers) long and an average of 43 miles (69 kilometers) wide. It is situated in the western Pacific east of the Philippines and an average of about 124 miles (200 kilometers) east of the Mariana Islands. Nearly 7 miles separate the ocean's surface from the Challenger Deep, the trench's deepest point, which is located roughly 200 miles (322 kilometers) southwest of the U.S. island of Guam (11 kilometers). The peak of Mount Everest would still be submerged if it were lowered into the Mariana Trench by more than a mile (1.6 kilometers).

Photo credit-orbitinside.com

A network of deep troughs that crisscross the ocean floor exists throughout the world, including the Mariana Trench. When two tectonic plates clash, they are created. At the point of collision, one of the plates descends into the Earth's mantle beneath the other, forming an ocean trench.


As part of the first global oceanographic trip, the British ship H.M.S. Challenger explored the Mariana Trench for the first time in 1875. Using a weighted-sounding rope, the Challenger's scientists measured a depth of 4,475 fathoms, or nearly five miles or eight kilometers. With an echo-sounder, the British ship H.M.S. Challenger II returned to the area in 1951 and determined a depth of about 7 miles (11 kilometers).

Photo credit-orbitinside.com

As part of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, created by President George W. Bush in 2009, the bulk of the Mariana Trench is now a U.S.-protected area.


The Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system, which creates the border between two tectonic plates, includes the Mariana Trench. In this arrangement, the smaller Mariana Plate that is located to the west is shoved beneath the Pacific Plate's western margin. Because the oceanic crust near the western side of the Pacific Plate is among the oldest on the planet (up to 170 million years old), it is cooler and denser, which accounts for its significant height differential from the Mariana Plate, which rides higher and is younger.


The Mariana Islands were formed indirectly as a result of the movement of the Pacific and Mariana plates. These volcanic islands are the result of the upper mantle's flux melting, which occurs when water that has been held in minerals of the Pacific Plate's subducted section is released.


The historic dive in the Mariana Trench-


The Mariana Trench is so deep that it is always in complete darkness, and the temperature is just above freezing. Eight tonnes per square inch of crushing water pressure, or around 1,000 times the average air pressure at sea level, is present at the bottom of the trench. As depth increases, pressure rises.


It has been more than 50 years since the first and only time that humans entered the Challenger Deep. In the bathyscaphe known as the Trieste, a submersible of the United States Navy, Jacques Piccard, and Navy Lt. Don Walsh accomplished this feat in 1960. The two spent only a brief 20 minutes at the bottom after a five-hour descent and were unable to capture pictures because of the silt.


Before Piccard and Walsh's groundbreaking dive, scientists argued over whether life could exist at all. However, at the bottom, Trieste's floodlight revealed a creature that Piccard mistakenly believed to be a flatfish. Piccard would later write with excitement about this encounter in a book about his journey.


Life in Mariana Trench-


Due to the intense pressure, the 1960 expedition reported to have seen enormous organisms living at the bottom, including a flatfish that was around 30 cm (12 in) long and shrimp. The bottom "looked bright and transparent, a waste of hard diatomaceous ooze," said Piccard. The purported sighting of the flatfish is now disputed by many marine biologists, and it has been proposed that the object might have been a sea cucumber. The unmanned vehicle Kaik collected mud samples from the ocean floor during the second voyage. In such samples, tiny living things were discovered.

Flat fish

At a depth of 8,145 m (26,722 ft), a new species of snailfish was found in December 2014, shattering the previous record for the deepest living fish captured on camera.


The 2014 voyage resulted in the discovery of numerous new species, notably the enormous supergiant amphipods. The process through which organisms get bigger than their relatives in shallow waters is known as deep-sea gigantism.


Volcanoes of Mariana Trench-


The crescent-shaped arc of the Mariana Trench is mirrored by a chain of volcanoes that rise above the ocean waves to form the Mariana Islands. Numerous bizarre submarine volcanoes are scattered across the islands.

Photo credit-oceanexplorer.noaa.gov

For instance, the Eifuku submarine volcano emits liquid carbon dioxide from chimney-like hydrothermal vents. These chimneys are emitting 217 degrees Fahrenheit liquid (103 degrees Celsius). According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, scientists at the neighboring Daikoku undersea volcano found a pool of molten sulfur 1,345 feet (410 m) below the ocean's surface, something that has never been observed before on Earth (NOAA).


It is amazing to have such a deep place on our planet and to have life living at such a depth under high pressure and complete darkness. Until next time, stay curious and stay happy.

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